வேதங்கள் எழுதப்பட்ட மொழி “தமிழி’ : ஆராய்ச்சியாளர் மூர்த்தி
பழமையான 4 வேதங்களும் “தமிழி’ என்ற மொழியில் தான் எழுதப்பட்டுள்ளன. அவை சம்ஸ்கிருத மொழி அல்ல என வேத ஆராய்ச்சியாளரும், வேதஸ்ரீ நிறுவனர் மற்றும் தலைவருமான பி.வி.என்.மூர்த்தி கூறினார்.
மறைமொழி அறிவியல் ஆய்வகம், தமிழக அரசு அருங்காட்சியகத்துடன் இணைந்து மறைமொழி அறிவியல் என்ற தலைப்பிலான கருத்தரங்கத்தினை சென்னை எழும்பூர் அரசு அருங்காட்சியகத்தில் வெள்ளிக்கிழமை (டிச.27) நடத்தியது. இதில் வேதஸ்ரீ தலைவர் பி.வி.என்.மூர்த்தி பேசியது:
பழமையான 4 வேதங்களும் சம்ஸ்கிருதத்தில் எழுதப்படவில்லை. அவை “தமிழி’ என்ற மொழியில் தான் இயற்றப்பட்டுள்ளன. நன்கு சம்ஸ்கிருதம் தெரிந்த அறிஞர்களிடம் வேதங்களில் சில பகுதிகளை மொழிபெயர்க்க கூறிய போது அவர்கள், இதில் உள்ள பல சொற்கள் சம்ஸ்கிருத அகராதியிலேயே இல்லை என்றனர். இது குறித்து நான் மேலும் ஆராய்ந்த போது வேதங்கள் அனைத்தும் சம்ஸ்கிருதம் கலந்த தமிழி மொழியில் தான் இயற்றப்பட்டுள்ளது என்பதை அறிந்தேன்.
வேதங்கள் இயற்றப்பட்ட காலத்தில் பல நூல்கள் தமிழி மொழியில் எழுதப்பட்டுள்ளன. ஆனால் அவை கடல் பிரளயத்தின் காரணமாக அழிந்து விட்டதால் தமிழி மொழியைப் பற்றி அறிந்து கொள்ள முடியவில்லை.
சங்கத் தமிழ், வேத இலக்கியங்களில் இலக்கியத்தைத் தவிர விஞ்ஞானம், கணிதம் என்ற இருமுகங்களும் உண்டு. என்னுடைய கண்டுபிடிப்பான மொழிக்கணிதம் என்ற நூல் இவ்விரு முகங்களையும் அம்பலப்படுத்துகிறது.
மேற்கத்திய அறிஞர்களான பித்தாகரஸ், டார்வின், ஐசக் நியூட்டன், ஐன்ஸ்டின், பூலியன் ஆகியோரின் கண்டுபிடிப்புகள் ஏற்கனவே நம் இலக்கியங்களில் சொல்லப்பட்டுள்ளன. மேலும், ராமாயணம், மகாபாரதம் போன்ற புராணங்களும் விஞ்ஞானம் மற்றும் கணிதத்தை விளக்கத்தான் இயற்றப்பட்டன.
இவற்றில் பலவற்றை மறைமொழி அறிவியல் ஆய்வகம் ஏற்கனவே விளக்கி விஞ்ஞானப் புத்தகங்களாக தயாரித்துள்ளது. இதனை கல்விக்கூடங்களில் பாடப்புத்தகங்களாக ஏற்றுக் கொண்டால் இன்றைய அறிவை விட மேலான அறிவைப் பெறலாம் என்றார்.
இந்தக் கருத்தரங்கினை தமிழக அரசின் முதன்மைச் செயலாளர் ஆர்.கண்ணன் தொடங்கி வைத்தார். ஓய்வுபெற்ற நீதிபதி டி.என்.வள்ளிநாயகம் தலைமை வகித்தார். இதில் தமிழக முன்னாள் காங்கிரஸ் தலைவர் குமரி அனந்தன் உள்ளிட்டோர் கலந்து கொண்டனர்.
Rig Veda as Archaic Tamil
Some Preliminary Notes
Against the background of what the Western Indologists and along with them a number of Indian scholars particularly the Brahmins have been saying , what I am about to say in this series may sound preposterous and rather offensive both to the Dravidianists and IndoAryanists. But truth is truth and it has to be stated no matter how unpalatable these ideas may be to the present day scholars. However as a preliminary remark let me mention that the Dravidian-Aryan antagonism and along with it the Brahmin- Nonbrahmin disputes that was generalized to the Sanskrit – Tamil language rivalries and political movements of various kinds that these elements of group dynamics gave rise to is rather new and began only with the Western Indologists like Max Muller who claimed for example that Rig Veda is the FIRST VOICE of the Aryanman. This appropriation of Sanskrit as the language of a race of people called Aryans and hence also Hinduism is behind all these painful political struggles which are still ongoing. However a study of Tamil literature shows that right from the beginning of Tolkaappiyam such a dichotomy and rivalry did not exist. While there were Brahmins ( paarppaans) right from the beginnings but they never thought of themselves as a different race of people but rather the same as the rest though given over to the recitations of the Vedas and so forth. The grouping of some of these Brahmins as those fond of Sanskrit, VadmoziyaaLar, those who were fond of Sanskrit, is something we note only from the period of MaNimekalai and perhaps because of Buddhism and Jainism. However we find the practice of Veelvi and Yajna or Yakam as integral parts of Tamil religious practices and without any antagonism towards them. They exist till today as integral part of temple activities as it was in Sumerian times. Furthermore almost all scholars were bilingual , mastered both Tamil and Sanskrit, and while some wrote in both languages some others only in Tamil or Sanskrit. They also saw BOTH as DIVINE languages and perhaps understood that Sanskrit was some kind of ancient heritage of Tamils as much as other so many things.
These studies may explain all these and show that Vedas were composed by some ancient Dravidian priests who were very well patronized by the Kings and more as specialized rituals for maintaining the king in good shape, sometimes a magical form of ritual for the selfish needs of Kings to maintain themselves in continued Kingship. The supremacist feelings of the Vedic Brahmins and the immense secrecy with which they guarded Vedic recitations may be related to these magical elements whereby they believed that by the practice of such Velvies they can invoke the Grace of BEING to maintain themselves the King and their country thorugh that in abundance and prosperity. Of course along with such laudable motivations there was also the craze for POWER especially the politically ambitious individuals that they hoped to gain by the practice of these rituals as if by magic and which became something questioned very early and because of which arose Jainism and Buddhism as reformist movements also by Kings.
Rig Veda as Eri Ombal
First of all a few words about the phrase Rig Veda itself. The ‘rig’ exist in Su. as “- ri ” and Ta. eri: fire . We have an instance of it in the following lines of Instructions of Suruppak dated towards the close of the 4 th millennium (perhaps the oldest written text in the world) but written copies dated around 2600 B.C.
1. u-ri-a sud-ra ri-a ( In those days , in those far remote days)
Here ‘u-ri’ is actually the archaic form of “uu -eri” , the light burning and hence the uuzi, the burst of the radiance, the Big Bang that set the cosmic movements on the march. From the meaning of eri, the burst of light , it has also come to mean ‘day’ as in Malay hari: day.
Veetaa can be derived from ” sid” : to recite etc. , sid> vid> Ta. vittai, Sk vidhya, veda etc.
Thus we can see that “Rig Veda” means : the hymns recited in front of Fire but metaphysically towards the Power that bursts forth as LIGHT and hence that which sets going the whole of the Cosmos, and hence close to “eri oombal ” of Sambantar or “erikku veetam” the kind of ritual that would drive away the disasters and miseries — kali vaaraamee. Here the contrast between ‘eri” (fire, light) and ‘kali= kari” (darkness , poverty miseries etc.) should be noted. Thus we can see that Rig Veda is a specialized set of hymns that were composed for the special purpose of Fire Worship and which appears to have been something special for the Kings in the Sumerian times itself and also for the general purpose of letting there be the metaphysical LIGHT as opposed to the metaphysical darkness.
I shall point out that there is an abundance of evidences for this kind of metaphysical sophistication in Rig Veda and which are CONTINUATION of the Sumerian and hence certainly NOT hymns composed by nomadic tribes who set up camfires in their nomadic wanderings to kill the cold but rather by a priesthood long in the making, very sophisticated metaphysical thinkers and who served the temples as much as the Royal palaces.
Fire Worship in the Temple and the Paarppaans (Brahmanas)
From the Sirbiyam of En Hudu Anna, we can get some interesting evidences not only for the Fire Worship but also its relation to the worship of Ati Paarppaan, or Piramma called also Veetan , Ayan and so forth in Tamil literature and is said to emerge from the belly of Tirumaal, the Se-ir maal or Enlil of the Sumerians.
The following lines are to the point.
84. as-im-babbar- (re) na-an (an-na) -kus-u-de-(en) ( I cannot appease Ashimbabbar)
*Ta. aatim paarppaaree naa aavanna koocitteeen
85. su-luh-an-ku-ga-ke ni-nam-ma-ni in-kur ( (Lugalanne) has altered the lustrations of holy An and all his (other rites)
*Ta. cuulai aaN kookakee nanammanee i(va)n kuuRu
The ‘babbar” is also used to describe the metal silver , ku-babbar and hence it means brightness , brilliance etc. The complex ‘as-im-babbar” then can be taken as Ta. aatimpaarppaar, the primordial brilliant deity, where the term ‘paarppaan” is also used for describing Sivam,, the Luminous Being. Here we can see that aaN is considered the same as as-im-babbar and hence aatipaarppar also as an archetypal presence of BEING as aaN, the Supreme Being, the Ruler of All. The verbal complex “kus-u-de-en ” can be taken as “koocitteen ” where it means reciting loudly as Ta. koocam means loud noise. Thus we can see that Enhudu Anna was in the habit of reciting verses in praise of Ati Paarppaan, a ritual practice which she claims here she could not practice because the rules were changed by his opponent, Lugalanne who arrested and put her in jail , perhaps as an expression of denying equal rights to women in temple rituals.
In conjunction with this we should also note that Piramma sits on White Lotus and his vehicle is the White Swan and which are perhaps translations of WHITENESS ( babbar, paarppaar) into mythological motifs. I have not found the Tamil equivalent for “babbar” other than ‘paarppaan” unless we can link it up Ta.paruppu: the (white) inside kernel of coconuts. A person may be called paarppaan in view of being possessed by this Deity , the deity Itself distinguished as the Atipaarppaan and understood as an archetypal variant of aaN, the Supreme Being.
The term Su. suluh , obviously related Ta. cuulai, cuul cuur etc. is the fire pit where cuulai exists still today as the fire pit for heating the clay pots and so forth. Thus praying in front of Cuulai, considered very sacred to aaN was a practice that was well instituted during the time of Enhudu Anna ( ~2200 B.C.) but interfered with perhaps by way of denying such rights to women priests round about that time.
The relevance of these lines is that : there was worship of Fire in fire pits as a homage to aaN but under the immediate supervision of Atipaarppaan and hence probably later an institution or ritual practice allotted to a group of priests called paarppaans, those who follow the way of Atipaarppaan, also the Veetan. Thus it may be possible that Rig Veda was a collection of hymns sung by such paarppaans as a ritual practice towards the worship of aaN, later also called Brahman and so forth.
The Priestesses Displaced by the Brahmanahs
There is another rite that’s mentioned as something Sulgi himself performed within the temple and perhaps related to this as well as to the displacement of priestesses from the Temple.
133. gir-gin-na-ka UZU-ga KA (d) Nin-tu-bi ga-me-en ( In the series of oracles , I am the nintu of their word(ing)
*Ta. kiir kaNNaka UZU-ngaan KA (d) Nintubi ngaan man ( In the collection of hymns I was productive like the Goddess Nintu)
134. su-luh-ha nam-isib-a su-de-de ( At the performance of the purification rites of the isib-craft)
*Ta. culookam icaippunam cuudiiteen ( I attained the rights to sing the slokas)
135. en-ra za-mi-ga gi-par-se dab-e ( I enter(?) the giparu in to the en-priest(ess) with my song
* Ta. eeNRa caamingaan karuvaRaisee tabbee ( I entered the sanctum sanctorium (of the temple) with the priestess praising the Lord
136. lu-mah nin-dinger sa-ku-ge pad-da ( (as ) lu-mah that the nin-dingir has chosen for the holy heart)
*Ta. aaLu maa Nin TingkaL saay kooka paddee ( as the Great man who was worn of the sacred womb of Mother Goddess herself)
Here we have another meaning for Su. suluh-ha i. e. slookam that is better retained in Sk than Tamil. Perhaps both words are interrelated , slokas as those concerned with cuulai worship, hymns that would kindle the Fire of brilliance within and because of which a person would rise great and mighty. However what is clear is the presence of the INSTITUTION of singing such hymns , nam-isib-a, the icaippunam and perhaps the kus-u , Ta, koosam of Enhudu Anna, a kind group singing perhaps.
However we can see the presence of Special Privileges here — only Sulgi can enter the sanctum sanctorium, the gi-par-ru, the karu-vaRai and that one has to be chosen by Nin-dinger to be thus honored and as indicated by the Head priestess, the eeN ( > veeNmaaL). We see here the remnants of very ancient practices where it was Mother Goddess and through her Priestess who would indicate who is the ” lu-mah” , the Great Man for the occasion and hence would enjoy the rights to enter the innermost chamber of the temple singing the slokas.
We can see that in later times this privilege of women priestess was usurped by men and such priests became most probably the Brahmanahs, priestly individuals who can legitimatize who can be the king and so forth and that Rig Veda has a function in this change of priestly rights from women to men, and along with it the suppression and marginalisation of Mother Goddess worship
Now I shall attend to another TWO important issues because they are quite prominent in the Rig Veda viz. the worship of Soma and Intiran (Indra) where while the Intira worship was quite a prominent feature in Cangam times but became marginalized during the Bakti period. The Soma worship can be linked with the notion of Kundalini and Kundalini Yoga as described and developed by Tamil Siddhas and which exists till today but more as specialized disciplines and concealed from the average person.
Soma worship was linked with the worship of Nanna Su’en , the Moon God also just Su’en in such texts as EnhuduAnna’s Siirbiyam. Siva wearing the Crescent Moon on His tuft along with Ganga may be a retention of this ancient notion.
I shall confine myself here only Siirbiyam
Su. Su’en and Soma
40 nin ur i-sa nin sa i-hul ( Lady (who) soothes the reins , lady (who) gladdens the heart)
41. ib-ba nu-te-te-en dumu-gal (d) su’en-na ( Whose rage is not tempered Oh eldest daughter of Suen!)
42. nin kur-ra diri-ga a-ba ki-za ba-an-tum ( Lady supreme over the land, who has (ever) denied (you) homage?
*Ta. nin uuru ii-caay nin caay ii uval ( Lady who pacifies the thighs, lady who gives pleasures)
*Ta. evvam naa-taNitaNi tamukaL cooyenna ( ” )
*Ta. Nin kunRa tiriga yaaba kiizsaa paN(Nu) tuuvum? ( Lady roaming the hills, who would move away from your place)
Here we have an obvious reference to In-anna as the eldest daughter of Su’en, the Moon God but as the giver of sexual pleasures to men and because of which they would never abandon her. Suen as the Mood God is seen as the god of the NIGHT times and hence the giver of sexual pleasures to human beings and all creatures. The Soma Paanam, the Soma Juice is the same as Kaama Paanam, the KuNdalini that affords the enjoyment of sexual pleasures.
This is more obvious from the following lines where In-anna is seen as Kamatci, she who controls the enjoyment of sexual pleasures and hence the attainment of Libido, the Kundalini.
54. sa-tur-bi-ta giri he-eb-ta -an-ze-er ( (From the cities that have refused homage to you) Have verily removed your foot from of its byre)
55. mi-be dam-ani-ta sa-ga na-an -da-ab-be ( Its women no longer speaks love with her husband)
56. gi-u-na ad na-an -di-ni-ib-gi-gi ( At night they no have intercourse)
57 ni-ku-sa-ga-na nam-mu-da-an -bur-re ( She no longer reveals to him her inmost treasures)
58 u-sun-zi-zi-i dumu-gal-(d)su-‘en-na ( Impetuous wild cow , the eldest daughter of Su’en)
59. nin an-ra diri-ga a-ba ki-za ba-an-tum ( Lady Supreme over An, who has (ever) denied (you) homage?
*Ta. caay toRubitta kiri eybitaan ceeyer ((from the cities that have refused homage to you) who have distanced your feet far aay from the depressions ( caay) where creatures are born ( toRu, toonRu) )
* Ta. maibiyee tamanitua cangkam naa a(v)nida abaiyee ( ” )
*Ta. mai uunna adu naa a(v)danee miilmiil ibbu ( ” )
*Ta. nii koo canganna naam moo udan piri ( “)
* Ta. uu cuun jii-jiiyi tamugaL (d) Cooyenna ( “)
*Ta. nin vaanRa tirigua yaaba kiiz-saa paN(NU) tuuvum ( Lady roaming the heavens , who would deny homage to you?)
In line 59 the phrase ‘an-ra” is better taken as “in the heavens” as in other lines Inanna is said to be obedient to aaN, the Supreme BEING whose spouse she is.
These lines make it abundantly clear that In-anna, the Power of regeneration was also the Power of Sexuality, SHE who controls the sexual libido and hence the regeneration of the species. She distances herself from the creatrix ( sa-tur-bi) probably the sexual centers in man and woman and because of which both become disinterested in sexual matters. The women do not speak of love and have sexual intercourse with men at night.
Thus we can see that Freudian principles were well understood in those times itself however with Cooyen, the Moon God especially His eldest daughter In-anna understood as the Deity who controls the libido and hence sexual pleasures and species regeneration. She castrates those people who refuse to acknowledge this Power of hers and people knowing it would NOT refuse to pay homage to her ( but something however was done in Jainism and Buddhism of later times. Also the Semitic faiths appear to have denied more vigorously homage to the FEMALE. Saivism has avoided this throughout its history))
We may note here that the ‘su’ in Su’en is Ta. cuu, cuur, cudar etc. meaning radiance and perhaps the root of cubam, coobai etc. as well as cuun ( wild cow) curam ( desert place ) etc. The ‘en’ is the male indicating suffix as in ‘vant-een” , ‘vantu-aaN’ etc.. The Nanna may be related Ta. nalla, the Good and hence Nanna Su’en may be the Full Moon personified as a deity but actually the Inner Moon , the metaphysical moon that provides the kuNdalini that takes many shapes as (inner) ganga waters, amuthu, vazalai, amuri etc. and shows itself also as the Snake also a form of Inanna. Perhaps it is semantically the same as the present VeNNila : the White Moon.
Su. inda, iti and Ta. intiran
We should mention here , still as the preliminary, the emergence of a special kind of rituals for the kings only and its linkage with the deity Indra, just as ancient and integral to Tamil religious practices as Siva Tirumaal Ambal Murukan and so forth that became obsolete only during the post bakti phase.
Sulgi’s Hymn B that I have renamed as Mutariibiyam, one of the names he gives himself, is turning out to be encyclopedic with respect to the wealth of information it contains about Sumerian culture.
I came across an interesting term “in-di” in one of these lines which can be linked with Intira worship of the Tamils and the Vedas. The word occurs in line below:
164. gis.al-gar gis. sa-bi-tum in-di lugal-la /MIR su si mi-ni-zu
The algar, the sabitum (which) are of the king’s rite, I taught the herald their fingering
Some tablets seem to have the variant “in-a” for “in-di” which is translated here as a noun ‘rite”. Going along with the above translation it follows that it is NOT a verb such as idin, iduyin etc. Now once we allow for the meaning of ‘rite” especially that pertaining to the kings , some kind of rites where the use of al-gar (yaazkaram, yaazkaal? ) and sabitum (> samittum and hence related to Sama ?) then we can see that ‘indi-ra’ becomes the Deity of these rites and the God special to the Kings and hence probably a God who would establish a person in his kingly life. kingly luxury . And of course his consort would be Indrani.
There is also the word Su. iti meaning the moon that exists in Ta. and Sk as intu . In the word ‘intumati” where ‘mati ‘ also means “moon” we can see “intu” exists as “beautiful” etc the same as Malay: indah . In Su. iti also means the month perhaps indicating that they calculated the month on the basis of the moon.
The Indiran of the Tamils we should remember, is the Veentan, the KING of the countless number of Gods, the King of the world of gods, and who is always associated with political power, wealth , worldly prosperity and happiness, something that goes to make up what a king is. Thus it may be that Nanna Su’en was also known as Intiran all because He provides the KuNdalini , the libido that would enable a person to exert himself vigorously and rise up to the position of political leadeship.
Indira in Tolkaappiyam
We must recall here that the socalled Vedic gods Indira and VaruNa also occur as Dravidian gods in Tolkaappiyam. We have the following Sutra where Indira, is addressed as VEntan, .i.e. King a meaning that well suits the Sumerian occurrence as well.
maayoon meeya kaaduRai ulakamum
ceeyoon meeya maivarai ulakamum
veentam meeya tiimpunal ulakamum
varuNam meeya perumaNal ulakamum
mullai kuRinjsi marutam neytalenas
colliya muRaiyaaR collavum padumee.
The commentators are agreed upon that by VEntan is meant Indra who is said to pervade (meeya) as the DIVINITY of the watered world of fertile fields which in those days was the primary source of wealth. The notion of fertility associated with water relates also In-anna , source of sexual libido in the form of In-anna
Intiriyam and Indra
Related to this term are ‘intiriyam’ meaning the senses and ‘intirapookam” meaning the enjoyment of the pleasures of life. It may be possible that this term for the senses as distinct from ‘pulan’ ‘poRi” etc. is derived from the notion “sensual enjoyment” and derivatively that which allows the enjoyment of sensual pleasures. In mythologies we have the depiction of Indira as one with unsatiable sexual desires and hence cursed with a thousand vagina all over his body.
This may also help to unravel the real meaing of ‘aintiram” which occurs in the preface to Tol, the meaning of which has been a matter of dispute among scholars, some claiming that it is an earlier grammatical text etc.
aRangkarai naavin naanmaRai muRRiya
atangkooddu aasaaRku aritabat terintu
mayangaa marabin ezuttumuRai kaaddi
malkuniir varaippin aintiram niRainta
tolkaappiayan enat tan peyar tooRRip
palpukaz niRutta padimai yoonee.
Here the relevant phrase is ‘ malku niir varaipin aintiram” i.e. the intiram pertaining to the world encircled by the waters. The meaning of “aintiram” as that pertaining to the excellence of worldly life well suits the whole tenor of Tol. and which is the substance of the whole of Porulatikaaram and for which the earlier books on phonology and syntax are written . Also considering that ‘niRainta’ means “filled with” aintiram may just mean ‘ worldly prosperity” or ‘domestic happiness ” that certainly would include sexual enjoyment. It is also highly pertinent here to note that this kind of worship is linked with the tradition of Vedic recitals – naan maRai muRRiya — those well versed in the Vedic knowledge.